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Venus like Exoplanet Possess a Thin Oxygen Atmosphere

23 Aug 16

Astronomers were intrigued by a distant planet GJ 1132b after its discovery last year. This planet has a temperature of approximately 450 degrees Fahrenheit, whereas it is situated just 39 light-years from Earth.

 

A Harvard astronomer Laura Schaefer and her team looked at the query of what would happen to GJ 1132b over a period of time if it began with a steamy, water-rich atmosphere.

 

The planet orbits around its star at a distance of only 1.4 million miles and is overflowing with ultraviolet or UV light. UV light breaks apart water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen and these can be lost into space. While hydrogen is lighter it escapes on a faster rate, whereas oxygen remains behind.

The planet has a strong greenhouse effect, adding to the star’s already extreme heat, since water vapor is a greenhouse gas. As a result, the surface could stay molten for millions of years.

 

Laura Schaefer stated that “On cooler planets, oxygen could be a sign of alien life and habitability. But on a hot planet like GJ 1132b, it’s a sign of the exact opposite-a planet that’s being baked and sterilized”.

 

Only about one-tenth of a “magma ocean” would interact with the atmosphere absorbing some of the oxygen. Whereas the remaining 90% of the oxygen streams into the space.

 

The model of the magma-ocean atmosphere can assist scientists to explain how Venus evolved over time. Most likely Venus began with Earthlike amounts of water, which would have been broken down by sunlight. Yet little signs of lingering oxygen is seen. The problem of the lost oxygen continues to puzzle astronomers.

 

Schaefer forecast that this model will offer insights into other, alike exoplanets. This work has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.

 


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The Connection Between Our Inner Voice and Self Conversation

13 Dec 17

Our brain does a number of different functions at the same time. According to a new study talking to ourselves may be fundamentally the same as speaking our thoughts out loudly. The latest results found by the researchers may help us understanding and getting the reason why people with mental illnesses hear voices to themselves.

Earlier it was thought that auditory-verbal hallucinations arise due to abnormalities in inner speech that is our silent internal conversation. Past research suggested that when we are ready to speak out loudly, our brain develops an exact copy of the instructions. After that, in no time these instructions are sent to lips, mouth and vocal cords and the process is known as an efference-copy. It is sent to the region of the brain that processes sound to forecast what sound it is about to listen. Then the region allows the brain to differentiate between the predictable sounds and the less predictable sounds. The way our brain perceives sounds can be changed by People's own thoughts. As its effect when people imagine sounds, those sounds seemed quieter comparatively to the real one. This research is going to be helpful in understanding how inner speech might be different in people with psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia. It will help doctors to cure those patients well.

By: Anita Aishvarya

Content: www.sciencedaily.com


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India’s Critical Position in the Export Sectors

12 Dec 17

The 5-year foreign trade policy (FTP) (2015-20) was issued to provide a framework for generating employment and increasing value addition. It also aimed at increasing the exports of goods and services to $900 billion by 2020. The mid- term review of this policy by the government has provided a relief to the Indian exporters. During the review, the government declared liberal incentives of Rs. 8,450 crore ($1.3 billion).

It has been observed that the exports have declined from $468 billion to $437 billion between 2014-15 and 2016-17. The external trade performance of India has been critical. As a result, the current account deficit in the first quarter of the current fiscal year has reached a four year high of 2.6%. The most disturbing aspect is that this trend is still continuing. An important role in this is played by the unpredictability concerning the execution of the Good and Services Tax (GST). There are very less chances of any improvement in the situation because processing of refunds to exporters under GST has influenced trading activities. Therefore, the so called incentives provided in the mid term review should contribute in increasing of exports to an extent. There is a need for the Indian policy makers to understand that the trade challenges for India are structural. These cannot be repaired by quick solutions. The Government needs to deeply investigate the structural fragility of the trade policy before India loses its comparative advantage to world markets.

By: Anuja Arora

Content: www.livemint.com

 

 


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A New Revelation of Clay Minerals Found on Mars

11 Dec 17

It has been assumed that large amount of clay minerals on Mars could have been formed later interactions with water on the surface. But this assumption has been nullified by a new research that reveals that it could have been formed after the planet's crust cooled down and took a solid form. Discussing of the possibilities it has been said that in the very early solar system, Mars and other rocky planets are assumed to have been covered by oceans of molten magma.

At the time when the magma ocean began to cool and solidify, water and other dissolved liquids would be evaporated to the surface. It led to the formation of a thick, steamy atmosphere around the planet. It took billions of years to the evolution of the planet. Volcanic activities and asteroid attacks would have covered the clays in some places and burrowed them in others. This process led to the patchy distribution of the clay in a large area that is seen on the planet. It has been said that those clay deposits doesn't require a warm and wet climate on early Red Planet. Scientists also said that the steam atmosphere that is related with the ocean of magma could have survived for as long as 10 million years or more.  There has been a possibility that a lot of water might have locked up in those clays that if heated up by any process, would release that water. It might provide a temporary water supply.

By: Anita Aishvarya

Content: www.sciencedaily.com


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The Unmatchable Chef: Sanjeev Kapoor

10 Dec 17

The great Indian chef Sanjeev Kapoor is a celebrity chef, entrepreneur writer and television personality. His show Khana Khazana achieved a lot of fame and it is the longest running show of its kind in Asia.

The show had its broadcasting in 120 countries and in 2010 had more than 500 million viewers. He launched his own channel “Food Food” in January, 2011. Discovery Communications gained majority stake in this channel through its Indian organization. He also participated in Jhalak Dikhla Jaa. Sanjeev Kapoor spent most of his childhood in New Delhi. He entered the hospitality industry in the year 1984 and pursued Diploma in Hotel Management from the Institute of Hotel Management (IHM) Pusa and Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition, New Delhi.

Sanjeev Kapoor is also the recipient of the Best Executive Chef of India Award by H & FS and the Mercury Gold Award at Geneva, Switzerland by Indian Federation of Culinary Associations. Sweekar Advanced, a sunflower oil brand in India made Sanjeev Kapoor their brand ambassador.

By: Bhavna Sharma

Content: Wikipedia


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How Education Should be Student Centric

09 Dec 17

Education minister on Thursday said that-Education should be student centric, not teacher centric.

He believes that school libraries should be equipped with books and study material not just accessible to students but also for teachers so that they do not face any problems in clearing doubts of a child. He has a strong belief that the government should work against putting an end to the marginalization of in education. Other than this, he has also proposed setting up talent labs to nurture the talent of each and every child. He says that educating them about the academic syllabus is not enough; instead it is also important that he inculcates other habits too like reading and writing.

Actor/Filmmaker Joy Mathew says that a child should not be categorized as abled or disabled on the basis of their exam performance. Education should be about nurturing talent and not marks or grades.

By- Srishti Anand

Content: www.thehindu.com

 


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