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Scientists Observe, the Amount of Water Needed To Carve Martian Valleys

19 Jun 17

A recent research has proven that an amount of water needed to carve Martian valleys.Before this many studies had suggested the presence of the ocean, active hydrologic cycle.However, a new study led by Northern Illinois University geography professor Wei Luo calculates the amount of water needed to carve the ancient network of valleys on Mars.The scientists concluded that the Red Planet's surface was once much more watery than earlier thought.

 The satellites received the convincing evidence while orbiting Mars’ surface.  With the help of the evidence, the scientists stated that water helped shape the planet's landscape billions of years ago. However, questions have lingered over how much water actually flowed on the planet, and the ocean hypothesis has been hotly debated.The scientists stated that the new estimate of the amount of water needed to sculpt the valleys is at least one order of magnitude larger than the volume of a hypothesized ocean.

 Content- www.sciencedaily.com

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A Brief History Of The Time Of Stephen Hawking

25 Mar 18

Stephen Hawking was one of the most brilliant theoretical physicists of all time. His works has dazzled many and will continue to help the scientists worldwide. He has worked on the origins and structure of the universe and worked on topics such as Big Bang to black holes. He has written some of the best selling books that has even appealed to those who do not have Hawking's scientific background. Stephen Hawking died on March 13, 2018 at the age of 76.

Hawkings attended University College, Oxford where he was studying physics. Just a while before his 21st birthday, he was diagnosed with motor neuron disease and was expected not to live more than 2 years. He survived but the disease spread which made Hawking less mobile. He married his first wife in 1965 and had 3 children. He remarried in 1995 and divorced in 2006. After his graduation, Hawking studied cosmology at Cambridge. He served as a research fellow before going on to becoming professional fellow. In 1979, he was designated with the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, which is the most popular academic chair in the world. His studies such as when he proved that Einstein's theory or quantum theory must be united or that black holes are not completely silent but emit radiation are some of the best work scientific world has ever has.

By: Neha Maheshwari

Content: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking




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International Pi Day

24 Mar 18

The number π (/paɪ/) is a mathematical constant. Originally defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, it presently has various equivalent definitions and appears in many formulas in all various areas of mathematics and physics. It is approximately equal to 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter "π" since the mid-18th century. It is also sometimes spelled out as "pi". March 14 is celebrated every year as International Pi Day. The exact value of Pi has so far been calculated upto 22 trillion digits, although it is believed to go on indefinitely. Some of the amazing facts about Pi are as follows:

1. Birth of Albert Einstein

March 14 which is celebrated as Pi Day, also marks the birthday of the great physicist Albert Einstein. He was born on March 14, 1879.

2. Pi Day or Pie Day

People around the globe indulge in celebrating the Pi Day by grabbing a slice of Pie. That sounds cool, doesn’t it?

3. Trillion Digit Value

The exact ratio hasn’t been calculated yet. Pi enthusiast Peter Trueb's computer calculated pi to 22,459,157,718,361 digits. In order to make this possible, he had to build a computer with 24 hard drives. Each of it contains six terabytes of memory.

4. Value of Pi by heart

Suresh Kumar Sharma of India, has set the record for memorizing the value of Pi upto 70,030 digits in October 2015. It took him 17 hours and 14 minutes to rhyme off what he learnt.

5. Digits

There are no occurences of 123456 in the first million digits of pi. But the first six digits, 314159, are present in that particular order at least six times in the first 10 million decimal places.

6. History of Pi

At first the Babylonians calculated pi approximately 4000 years ago. Later an Egyptian scribe calculated a circle’s area giving it approximate value of 3.16. Around 287 B.C. Mathematician Archimedes used the Pythagorean Theorem to calculate Pi. Further Chinese mathematician Zu Chongzhi, also calculated it to 3.14159292. It was in 1700s that the Greek letter π began to be used to represent pi.

By: Anuja Arora

Source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/pi-day-facts-1.4572534


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Explore Your Weird, Incredible Brain

23 Mar 18

We are what we think ourselves to be. We can encourage ourselves to think and be what we want. In fact, we use a very small portion of our undaunted brain. Although a human brain weighs not more than 3 pounds (1.36 kg), it is amazing to know that it contains more than a trillion cells. And these set of cells functions like a super computer: process facts and figures, stores in it millions of undamaged memory, controls our movements, imagine and assume things and activities beyond comparison.

Here are some amazing facts about our weird, incredible brain:

The human brain is divided into two hemispheres of which the left one contains almost 200 million more neurons than the right hemisphere.

The neurons are too small, yet for scientists they can still measure activity of each single neuron simply by inserting microelectrodes into the brain, 'single-unit recording' to refine epilepsy diagnoses.

The issue of sex difference is controversial in human brain, but according to an article in Journal of Neuroscience, gray matters are found in pretty good numbers in women than men. However, according to researchers, with regular exercise, the gray matter can be increased.

Fat is risky for heart but for brain, it is beneficial and more than half of the brain including myelin is made of fat.

Human brain is a powerhouse of energy and even a sleeping brain has got the potential to light a 25-watt bulb.

Glial cells exceeds the number of neurons in the brain. They are 10-times more in number than the neurons. Though they basically held neurons together but certain types, like astrocytes play a significant role in the complex thought process.

Forty years after the death of Albert Einstein, researchers at National Institute of Health found that his brain contains unusually high number of astrocytes. His brain also contained an extra-thick corpus callosum.

However, the brain of this legendary genius proved that size doesn't matter. It weighed only 2.71 pounds, which is comparatively smaller than the usual.

Pain receptors do not exists in human brain for which surgeons can operate the cerebral  cortex of a fully conscious patient. Infact, people can survive even on a half brain. 

By: Subrata Dey

Content: https://mic.com/articles/103518/43-facts-about-your-brain-that-will-blow-your-mind#.LyFeA7Svl

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Rediscovering Jupiter

22 Mar 18

Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System.  In 1610, when Galileo discovered the four large moons that revolve around Jupiter it revolutionized the way universe was conceived. It was a big support for the Copernican view which said that the Earth was not the center of the universe.

Jupiter is so enormous that it is estimated that it could hold 1,300 earths. Jupiter’s characteristics are more of a star or rather like a solar system in itself with four large moons and many smaller ones orbiting around it.

The colorful light and dark bands around Jupiter are caused by very strong winds blowing from east to west at a speed of more than 640 km per hour. These activities are recorded at the upper atmosphere of the Jupiter. The giant red spot is a hurricane like storm that has been raging for more than 300 years.

Juno, the NASA space probe sent on the 5th of August, 2011 to explore the story of how Jupiter was formed and evolved. The studies revealed that the light and dark bands that were initially thought to be at the upper atmosphere actually extend to a depth of approximately 3,000 km below its surface. These atmospheric processes also last longer than the atmospheric processes on Earth.

The findings of Juno help understand the mechanism that drives these strong jet streams. It is also seen that the gravity signature of the blowing jet streams is entangled with that of the gravity signal coming from the core of Jupiter.


By: Madhuchanda Saxena

Content: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180307183418.htm

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Sports Drinks Vs Water - What's Better?

21 Mar 18

With a range of sports drinks available in the markets that claim that after a long workout, you need the electrolytes and vitamins present in it and not water to replenish yourself - the question arises on whether or not these drinks are really better than water? According to Lauren Popeck, a registered dietician at Orlando Health in Florida, water is best for hydrating your body. You only start losing electrolytes from your body when you have been exercising for more than an hour and have been sweating a lot.

Electrolytes, mainly sodium and potassium, can easily affect your muscles and hydration of your body. Low electrolytes can lead to muscle cramps and headaches. After doing an hour of exercise, you need 20 ounces of fluid to stay hydrated. While picking a sports drink, make sure it has ample amounts of sodium and potassium as well as carbohydrates to provide your body fuel to continue exercising.

But, in order to stay healthy, consuming sports drinks should be kept to a minimal as some of them are very high in sugar. Also, if you have proper diet, then your body stores of sodium and potassium are enough to replenish any loss of electrolytes. After performing an hour of exercise, you need around 20 ounces of fluid to stay hydrated. Normally, people who do not engage in long duration exercise need 9 cups or 2 litres of water for women and 13 cups or 3 litres of water for men.


By: Neha Maheshwari

Content: https://www.livescience.com/54548-sports-drinks-vs-water.html

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