Researchers from Stephen Lansing (
The scientists stated that pest entered the scene when farmers are planting at different times, pests can move from one field to another. However, when farmers plant in synchrony, pests drown and the pest load is reduced. Additionally, the upstream farmers have an incentive to share water so that synchronous planting can happen. Due to limited water resources and lack of water bodies, everyone can not plant at the same time. Thus, constraint, fractal planting patterns emerge, which yield close to maximal harvests.