Astronomers apply the principles of physics and mathematics to learn more about the universe. They gather data on the characteristics of planets, moons, stars and other objects using telescopes and computer programs. Astronomers usually specialize in certain types of celestial bodies or events, such as black holes. Typical duties include developing and testing scientific theories, analyzing data and writing research proposals. They also spend time composing scientific papers and presenting their findings to others in the field.
•Nearly always work indoors. •Usually work regular business hours. However, those who are deeply involved in research may work longer hours. •Must be accurate and thorough in their work. Errors could cause equipment they designed not to work properly. •Sometimes have to repeat the same mental tasks. •Usually have the freedom to make decisions and set their daily tasks and goals independently. •Sometimes must meet weekly and monthly deadlines, such as when teaching at a university.
He played a major role in the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.
In the early 20th century, German physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) became one of the most famous scientists ever after proposing a new way of looking at the universe that went beyond current understanding. Einstein suggested that the laws of physics are the same throughout the universe that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant, and that space and time are linked in an entity known as space-time, which is distorted by gravity.