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Let's Know About Animal and Fishery Sciences

11 Dec 2018

Do you ever wonder, what was the first food that the ancient human ate? The very first food logically seems to be milk. That is the very first food that a human baby ever tastes. However, as human have developed from apes and monkeys, which was a slow cycle of evolution and there is no clear and definite time as to when these early apes became completely human, hence it is quite hard to determine what kind of food was first consumed by the early humans. It should have been fruits, vegetables or leaves as the early humans were gatherers, way before they actually became hunters.

The real Paleolithic diet too wasn’t totally meat based. Though meat was craved more but the hunters were not always rewarded with a kill and there were often dismal success as hunters, as they did not have the requisite tools at that point. A kill was more often backed by luck than technique and tools. So how did they survive? How did they gather energy when they failed to kill, and there was no meat? This was when the forager woman with the help of the children would forage for fruit, edible tubers, honey, nuts etc. These were the food that sustained them when they had no meat to eat. However, it is true that meat did play a starring role in the evolution of the human diet. Meat eating also has been crucial to the development of larger brains about two million years ago as thought by some scientist. It is believed that by starting to eat calorie dense meat and marrow instead of low calorie plant diet of the apes our ancestors, the Homo erectus were taking in extra energy in each of their meals that helped fuel a bigger brain. The brain requires 20 percent of human’s energy when we are resting while in comparison, the brain of that of an ape requires only 8 percent. It clearly shows that from the time of Homo erectus the human body has been dependent on energy –dense food and meat was definitely top of the list. 

It is estimated that sometimes around 12000 years ago, our ancestors the hunters’ gatherers started to settle down at places and that’s how they began trying their hands at farming. History records the domestication of animals and plants. Previously wild grains were collected and consumed, however, around 95000 BC, eight Neolithic founder crops like the emmer wheat, einkorn wheat hulled barley, and peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated. Rice was domesticated in china by 6200 BC. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia, followed by sheep between 11000 BC. Pakistan and Turkey were places where cattle were domesticated around 8500 BC. 

Agriculture triggered a great change in the way which people lived. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles that were the norm till then were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and a reliable supply of food. It’s with agriculture that cities and civilization grew. As crops and animals were now farmed to meet the demand, population globally rocketed from mere five million people 10,000 years ago to 7.2 billion.

With the birth of modern civilization large scale animal and plant agriculture became the norm. Though the technology was not as advance but this kind of large scale process was successful in feeding the large cities that were fast developing. The Agricultural Revolution got its start in Great Britain in the early 18th century. This was the time of significant agricultural development that led to massive increase in food production. New farming techniques and improved livestock breeding and amplified supply of food also allowed a spike in human population and good health.

With population increasing at a steady pace there was need to enhance the methods of Animal farming for better production to meet the huge demand. Animal Husbandry is a branch of Agriculture that deals with domestication, care and breeding of farm animals like cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, etc. Animal Husbandry began during the new Stone Age or the so called Neolithic age. The huge Global population depends upon animal Husbandry for their livelihood so does the total Global population for their constant supply of milk, eggs, meat, and many other products that are made out of these as raw materials. It is not just about food but Animal husbandry caters to many other industries like the bakery, wool, and leather. Fishery is also is one of the popular occupation and an industry as well. Different new techniques have evolved over the years for better culture of fishes. Fishery and Aqua culture is a thriving industry. 

Both Animal and Fishery sciences have a bright prospect as a career option. There are several colleges and universities specially dedicated to studies of Animal and Fishery Sciences. As per available statistics, India is known to be one of the largest producers of fish and other aquatic organism. There are several courses that are offered like;

1.Diploma Course in Veterinary Pharmacy

2.5 years Bachelor of Veterinary science and Animal Husbandry

3.4 years Bachelor of Technology in Diary Technology

4.4 years Bachelor of Fishery Sciences 

5.3 years PhD programmes in different disciplines.

A Bachelor or Masters Degree in Fishery Science also opens up other avenues that can be pursued like Oceanography, fresh Water Biology, Marine Biology, limnology, ecology and conservation.

Several colleges all across India have courses on both Animal Sciences and Fisheries. One can also take advice from the Career counselors to get a sound idea about the courses. There are several Career Counselors that one can go to including Online Career Counseling as well. 

Apart from these there are many Career Guide Services available online and one can go through those websites to get a good understanding of the Course. Many Career seminars also are held to help students select the course most suitable for them. The counseling also helps students understand their strengths and weaknesses and can work accordingly to better themselves.

 One can log on to the links listed below which will provide one with a good understanding of the courses available and how to go about cracking the exam:



By: Madhuchanda Saxena

Posted By - Assistant Editor