India's Path Towards Independence
Education News | Jan-16-2022
The British rule led to major changes in social, economic, educational, and political changes which led to major dissatisfied groups and classes thus a lot of issues.
All this led to the people questioning whether the country belonged to them or not, which of course, it did and still does. Soon after the realization occurred that Indians cannot fully belong with the British greedy for control.
Political associations began forming after the 1850s, major ones being in the 1870s-1880s. The Indian National Congress is one of the important ones.
Indianisation of the administration, a demand for greater voice and high positions along with the separation of the judiciary from the execution were asked for by Congress during the early years. Economic issues and public awareness about the unjust were also raised on the behalf of all the people highlighting their problems during earlier years of the congress.
Sooner or later, the Congress divided into groups of Moderates and Radicals, both of which were strictly opposed to the partition of Bengal which led to mass protest. Certain business groups also started supporting Congress in the 1920s.
After Gandhi arrived from South Africa and his becoming a mass leader, many movements were organized.
1) The Rowatt Satyagraha: It was the first all-India movement demanding basic rights and opposing The Rowatt Act. The number of strikes and non-violent measures increased and the govt. started using brutal measures to suppress it, eg, The Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar. It was tried to ensure that people of all religions participate together in this movement.
2) Khilafat agitation and the Non-Cooperation Movement: After the harsh treaty of Khalifa, the Muslims were furious and wanted to initiate a Non-Cooperation movement and the Congress supported it to fight against The Jallianwala Bagh massacre. The unity led to this movement gaining momentum during 1921-1922.
3) 1922-1929: After calling off the Non-Cooperation movement due to the Chauri Chaura incident, the Gandhians were able to support more people due to social work and were able to launch the Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. Soon after, Congress fought for complete independence in 1929 under Nehru.
4) The Dandi March: The Salt March was a way of breaking a law made by the British in which all people could participate. Gandhi and his followers marched from Sabarmati to Dandi, 240 miles for it. The govt. tried brutal methods to stop it. The result of this was provincial autonomy and rule in 7 of 11 provinces.
5) Quit India Movement: Between the Second World War, a mass rebellion occurred with its motto “do or die”. After severe repression by the govt. it finally came to its knees.
After this, due to insecurities, the Muslims demanded a different country for themselves, Pakistan. The partition came along with a lot of pain violence and death the only silver lining being the independence from the British Raj.
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