Types Of Soils In India
Editorials News | Jan-03-2022
We live on the land which provides us with various kinds of natural resources and we perform various economic activities on this land and use it in different- different ways. This land supports the natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transport, and communication system. In India, we consider the land as our mother. India has relief features such as; Mountains, Plateaus, Plains, and Islands. About 43 percent of the land area is plain which provides facilities for agriculture and industry. Mountains account for 30 percent of the total surface and plateau account for 27 percent.
India has various relief features, landforms, climatic religions, and vegetation types. These have contributed to the development of various types of soils in India.
(1) Alluvial Soils: Alluvial soil is the most widely spread important soil. Northern plains are made of alluvial soil. This soil also extends to Rajasthan and Gujarat. The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt, and clay. Alluvial soil is ideal for the growth of sugar cane, paddy, wheat, and other cereals and pulse crops.
(2) Black Soils: As the name itself suggests that this soil is black and is also known as regur soil. Black soil is found in the plateau of Maharashtra, Sourashtra, Malwa, M.P, Chhattisgarh, and extends in the southeast direction along the Godavari and Krishna valley. The black soil is made up of extremely fine clayey material. This soil is rich in nutrients like calcium, carbonate, magnesium, potash, and lime. Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as cotton soil.
(3) Red and Yellow Soils: Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in eastern parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain, and along the piedmont zone of the western ghats. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
(4) Laterite Soils: Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick. The later right soil develops under tropical and subtropical with the alternate wet and dry seasons. This soil is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain. Laterite soil is mostly deep to very deep; acidic. This soil is found in southern states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala and also in western regions of Maharashtra, Odisha some parts of West Bengal, and north east regions.
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